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5 points in the power supply design PCB can not be ignored

May 11, 2018

Power design is only about PCB design:

 

1. The first is to have a reasonable direction:

Such as input / output, AC / DC, strong / weak signal, high / low frequency, high / low pressure, etc .... Their direction should be linear (or separate) and should not blend with each other. Its purpose is to prevent mutual interference. The best direction is to follow a straight line, but it is generally not easy to achieve. The most unfavorable trend is a ring. Fortunately, isolation can be improved. For DC, small signal, low voltage PCB design requirements can be lower. So "reasonable" is relative.

 

2. Choose a good grounding point: Grounding point is often the most important.

A small grounding point I do not know how many engineering and technical personnel have done to it on how much exposition, which shows its importance. In general, common ground is required. For example, multiple ground lines of the forward amplifier should be connected and then connected to the mains. In reality, it is difficult to do it completely because of various restrictions, but it should be followed as much as possible. This problem is quite flexible in practice. Everyone has their own set of solutions. It is easy to understand if it can be explained on a specific circuit board.

 

3. Arrange the power filter/decoupling capacitor properly.

In general, only a few power supply filtering/decoupling capacitors are shown in the schematic, but they do not indicate where they should each be connected. Actually, these capacitors are set for switching devices (gates) or other components that need to be filtered/decoupled. Arranging these capacitors should be as close as possible to these components. There is no effect if they are too far away. Interestingly, when the power filter/decoupling capacitors are placed properly, the problem of grounding becomes less obvious.

 

4. There are stress lines, wire diameters are required, and the size of buried holes is appropriate.

The conditional wide line should never be fine; high pressure and high frequency lines should be slippery, and there must be no sharp chamfering, and corners must not be right-angled. The ground should be as wide as possible, and it is best to use a large area of copper, which greatly improves the problem of grounding. The pad or via hole size is too small or the pad size is not properly matched to the hole size. The former is not conducive to artificial drilling, which is not conducive to CNC drilling. It's easy to drill the pad into a "c" shape, and when it's heavy, drill the pad. The wire is too thin, and copper is not provided in the large area of the unwiring area, which tends to cause uneven etching. That is, when the unwiring area is completely eroded, the thin wire is likely to be excessively corroded or broken or completely broken. Therefore, the role of the copper deposit is not only to increase the ground area and resist interference.

 

5. Number of vias, solder joints, and line density.

Although some problems occurred in post-production, they were brought about in the PCB design. They were: too many over-holes, and the copper sinking process would be buried in the pit. Therefore, the wire holes should be minimized in the design. The line density in the same direction is too high, and it is easy to join in one piece when welding. Therefore, the linear density should be determined according to the level of the welding process. The distance between solder joints is too small, which is not conducive to manual welding, and can only be solved by reducing the work efficiency. Otherwise it will leave hidden dangers.


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